US Fish & Wildlife Paint Rock River Wildlife Refuge

Cave conservation issues, techniques, questions. Also visit the NSS Cave Conservation and Management Section.

Moderator: Moderators

US Fish & Wildlife Paint Rock River Wildlife Refuge

Postby UnderGroundEarth » Apr 11, 2013 12:51 pm

As a part of Obama’s America's Great Outdoors initiative (AGO), the US Fish & Wildlife Service has proposed a National Wildlife Refuge for the Paint Rock River Watershed in Franklin County, Tennessee (http://www.fws.gov/southeast/paintrockriver/index.html). The money to fund the AGO comes from $900 million in royalties for oil and gas produced from federal lands. There were already two previous failed attempts, one in the 80’s and other in the early 2000’s, to have this area made a National Forest.

The current proposed refuge will connect the Bear Hollow Mountain and Walls of Jericho WMA with the Skyline Management Area making the majority of the southwest Cumberland Plateau owned by the State or the US Government. The USFWS is looking for willing sellers and those who will establish easements within the targeted 25,120 acres in Franklin County, TN. The largest tract of interest is 12,276 acres with 4 others who are between 1,300-3,000. The majority of parcels are between 50-200 acres, however one landowner does own a combined total of 14,399 of the acres. To download the Draft Environmental Assessment and Land Protection Plan in its entirety go to http://www.fws.gov/southeast/paintrockr ... 5-2013.pdf.

The proposed refuge tract is comprised of 3 tributaries of the Paint Rock River – the Larkin Fork, the Estill Fork, and Hurricane Creek (http://www.fws.gov/southeast/paintrockr ... 232012.pdf) but does not include any of the river itself and the USFWS services states that the proposed area is in no real threat or danger. The watershed does provide habitat for endangered species such as the Gray Bat, Snail Darter, and American Hart’s Tongue Fern as well as 45 species of rare freshwater mussels. The USFWS gives priority consideration to six wildlife-dependent public uses on National Wildlife Refuges: hunting, fishing, wildlife observation, photography, environmental education, and interpretation. If these uses are determined to be compatible with refuge purposes, and funds are available to manage them, they would be allowed within the proposed refuge. ***The USFWS does not see caving as a priority public use and there are 68 caves on the proposed refuge that will be closed to the public. *** However one of the objectives of America’s Great Outdoor initiative is to improve opportunities to get young people outdoors but closing the caves in this area excludes a large recreational group in this region who also take their kids caving.

The USFWS has had two public meetings regarding the proposed refuge. I had the opportunity to attend the second one in Winchester on Wednesday April 10th. Following the presentation by the USFWS they allowed a questions and answers session. Many locals who are live in the proposed area were present and expressing many concerns. I did take the opportunity to ask them directly if they are in fact planning on closing the caves if they acquire the land. I was informed that because of White Nose Syndrome (WNS) that the caves on the proposed refuge will in fact be closed for recreational purposes.

The USFWS is taking comments from the public until May 3rd to be considered in the development of the final Environmental Assessment and Land Protection Plan. You do not have to be a resident of Franklin County or even Tennessee to submit a public comment. This is an opportunity for cavers to be heard and make their comments public. For all those who have complained in the past about the Govt closing caves this is your opportunity to express your opinion. They are required to consider and address any substaintive comments. Please send your comments to: Oliver van den Ende, Refuge Planner Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge, 2700 Headquarters Rd., Decatur, AL 35603 paintrockriver@fws.gov. All comments they receive will be documented and a part of the public record. After that time they will finalize their Land Protection Plan and Environmental Assessment and submit it to the regional USFWS director in Atlanta. Once it is approved there it will then go to the USFWS Director in Washington for final approval. The USFWS expects the proposal to be approved by the end of June, 2013. This is your opportunity to speak up.

I want to personally state that as a nature lover and conservationist, I am not opposed to the proposed USFWS Wildlife Refuge in the Paint Rock River Watershed in Franklin County, Tennessee. I feel this will protect the land and all of its environmental resources for many generations to come. However, as a caver and photographer who lives in Tennessee, what I am against is the blanket closure of caves on public land by our government agencies while continuing to allow access for other public uses. I personally do not understand how the USFWS does not see that environmental education, photography, and wildlife observation go directly hand in hand with caving. By not allowing caving they are intentionally excluding a large recrational group in this region while allowing other recreational uses on the land. The USFWS has already learned a valuable lesson on the Fern Cave Preserve in Jackson County, Alabama. The blanket closure there kept responsible cavers out while in the meantime allowed locals unchecked access who went in and permanently damaged the cave. The proposed refuge in the Paint Rock River Watershed has 68 caves on it. If it can happen to a large cave system like Fern, it would be even more likely that it could happen to many of the 68 caves on the proposed preserve.
Unearthly Beauty Lies Underground for those who Venture In!
www.flickr.com/undergroundearth
User avatar
UnderGroundEarth
NSS Hall Of Fame Poster
 
Posts: 534
Joined: May 17, 2006 3:39 pm
Location: Jasper, Tennessee
Name: Kelly Smallwood
NSS #: 58745 RL,FE
Primary Grotto Affiliation: Sewanee Mountain Grotto
  

Re: US Fish & Wildlife Paint Rock River Wildlife Refuge

Postby tncaver » Apr 11, 2013 1:37 pm

Before any one blindly approves of the Paint Rock River Wildlife Refuge land purchases, consider the following issues:

1. How will the government recoup the tax money that current landowners are paying? Will they raise your property taxes?
Will they charge outrageous permit fees to use the land? Will they come up with some new taxes? Something has to give.
2. Will they close all the current existing four wheel drive roads and trails to the public on the new land purchase? Previous land purchases in this and other states have done exactly that in most cases, so ONLY hikers and overnight backpackers will benefit. That would not benefit older recreationists who depend on 4 wheel drive or ATV to get to some areas due to the distances involved.
3. Will all other recreation be closed during hunting seasons, as happens on the Bridgestone/Firestone Recreation area? Hunting season always corresponds with the best weather for hiking and camping. If only hunters are allowed on the land during hunting season, then bird watchers, hikers, campers and backpackers, kayakers, etc., will lose out during the nicest weather of the entire year.
4. Will all caves be closed on the refuge? Again that will exclude recreation by a large portion of the citizens of TAG. I would suggest closing ONLY major hibernacula, but that has not been the case in Tennessee. All caves are closed on government land in Tennessee.

Don't be fooled by that word PROTECTED. What it really means is RESTRICTED.
tncaver
NSS Hall Of Fame Poster
 
Posts: 2623
Joined: May 17, 2007 7:03 pm
  

Re: US Fish & Wildlife Paint Rock River Wildlife Refuge

Postby UnderGroundEarth » Apr 11, 2013 1:59 pm

tncaver wrote:1. How will the government recoup the tax money that current landowners are paying? Will they raise your property taxes?


There will be goverment subsidizing to the local governments who lose the property taxes.

tncaver wrote: 2. Will they close all the current existing four wheel drive roads and trails to the public on the new land purchase? Previous land purchases in this and other states have done exactly that in most cases, so ONLY hikers and overnight backpackers will benefit. That would not benefit older recreationists who depend on 4 wheel drive or ATV to get to some areas due to the distances involved.


YES, they stated last night that there will be no off roading allowed on the property and there will be NO CAMPING allowed either.

tncaver wrote: 3. Will all other recreation be closed during hunting seasons, as happens on the Bridgestone/Firestone Recreation area? Hunting season always corresponds with the best weather for hiking and camping. If only hunters are allowed on the land during hunting season, then bird watchers, hikers, campers and backpackers, kayakers, etc., will lose out during the nicest weather of the entire year.


They did not address this last night.

tncaver wrote: 4. Will all caves be closed on the refuge? Again that will exclude recreation by a large portion of the citizens of TAG. I would suggest closing ONLY major hibernacula, but that has not been the case in Tennessee. All caves are closed on government land in Tennessee.


YES, they clearly stated that all of the caves on the land they obtain in the refuge will in fact be closed to recreational caving due to WNS.

I will state again: The USFWS is taking comments from the public until May 3rd to be considered in the development of the final Environmental Assessment and Land Protection Plan. You do not have to be a resident of Franklin County or even Tennessee to submit a public comment. This is an opportunity for cavers to be heard and make their comments public. For all those who have complained in the past about the Govt closing caves this is your opportunity to express your opinion. They are required to consider and address any substaintive comments. Please send your comments to: Oliver van den Ende, Refuge Planner Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge, 2700 Headquarters Rd., Decatur, AL 35603 paintrockriver@fws.gov. All comments they receive will be documented and a part of the public record. After that time they will finalize their Land Protection Plan and Environmental Assessment and submit it to the regional USFWS director in Atlanta. Once it is approved there it will then go to the USFWS Director in Washington for final approval. The USFWS expects the proposal to be approved by the end of June, 2013. This is your opportunity to speak up.
Unearthly Beauty Lies Underground for those who Venture In!
www.flickr.com/undergroundearth
User avatar
UnderGroundEarth
NSS Hall Of Fame Poster
 
Posts: 534
Joined: May 17, 2006 3:39 pm
Location: Jasper, Tennessee
Name: Kelly Smallwood
NSS #: 58745 RL,FE
Primary Grotto Affiliation: Sewanee Mountain Grotto
  

Re: US Fish & Wildlife Paint Rock River Wildlife Refuge

Postby trogman » Apr 11, 2013 2:31 pm

Kelly:
Thanks for your interest and taking the time to get involved!
My letter has been sent.

Trogman :helmet:
User avatar
trogman
NSS Hall Of Fame Poster
 
Posts: 911
Joined: May 2, 2008 8:35 am
Location: North Alabama
Name: Stephen Brewer
Primary Grotto Affiliation: Gadsden Grotto
  

Re: US Fish & Wildlife Paint Rock River Wildlife Refuge

Postby tncaver » Apr 11, 2013 2:49 pm

I sent an email to the email address Kelly listed, asking the unanswered questions. Frankly, if there is no caving, no camping, and no four wheeling on such a huge property, I question if the value of the money spent will be equal to the recreation value that will be allowed. Take away all other recreation during hunting season and what you have left is another giant hunting reserve that allows few other limited activities only during the least desirable times of the year. If the Federal Government is subsidizing lost tax revenue to the states then who do you think is really paying for it? The FED gets their money from us. You and me. Nothing is free. We will be paying for land that few of us can use for our preferred recreational activities and only during the hottest and coldest times of the year while hunters will have access during the best times of the year. Taxes will go up and we will all be paying for a giant hunting preserve. Not much left but bird watching and hiking and only in hot or cold weather. Just how much land does the government have to control?

trogman wrote:Kelly:
Thanks for your interest and taking the time to get involved!
My letter has been sent.

Trogman :helmet:
tncaver
NSS Hall Of Fame Poster
 
Posts: 2623
Joined: May 17, 2007 7:03 pm
  

Re: US Fish & Wildlife Paint Rock River Wildlife Refuge

Postby tncaver » Apr 11, 2013 6:01 pm

I have another question which I forgot to ask. Is the government going to take people's land in Paint Rock River Valley by imminent domain? That is; take their land whether they want to sell it or not? If they do, and those people want to buy another 15,000 acre
property, just where could they go to find it? Alaska maybe? I doubt anyone could find many places that big for sale in TAG because the government has acquired an incredible amount of huge estates in the Cumberland Plateau. There may not be any more places for anyone to buy large tracts in the plateau because the government is buying them all. So much for private land ownership in
America. Such land acquisitions are commonly known as land grabs. Why is our government doing this? Conservation can only go so far and eventually there will be no land left for the populace to make a living on.
tncaver
NSS Hall Of Fame Poster
 
Posts: 2623
Joined: May 17, 2007 7:03 pm
  

Re: US Fish & Wildlife Paint Rock River Wildlife Refuge

Postby PYoungbaer » Apr 11, 2013 7:07 pm

No, not by eminent domain. They'll pay fair market value. If you read the full document, they lay out the entire process and costs involved. Frankly, it read like it would take many years of approaching each individual landowner and negotiating a deal. There is a federal appropriation for paying towns a payment in lieu of taxes to make up for lost property tax revenue, but it is subject to federal appropriation, and there is no guarantee of full payment - that is, it could be pro-rated, driven by the appropriation amount.

When the folks at the public hearing said the caves would be closed to recreational caving due to WNS, it sounded like this was imminent. However, reading the document makes it sound like it may be quite a while until the refuge properties are accumulated and any management plan put into effect.

For those of you who were there, was any timetable discussed?
PYoungbaer
NSS Hall Of Fame Poster
 
Posts: 1358
Joined: Apr 30, 2008 4:04 pm
Location: Plainfield, VT
NSS #: 16161 CM FE
Primary Grotto Affiliation: Vermont Cavers Association
  

Re: US Fish & Wildlife Paint Rock River Wildlife Refuge

Postby UnderGroundEarth » Apr 12, 2013 8:21 am

tncaver wrote:I have another question which I forgot to ask. Is the government going to take people's land in Paint Rock River Valley by imminent domain? That is; take their land whether they want to sell it or not? If they do, and those people want to buy another 15,000 acre
property, just where could they go to find it? Alaska maybe? I doubt anyone could find many places that big for sale in TAG because the government has acquired an incredible amount of huge estates in the Cumberland Plateau. There may not be any more places for anyone to buy large tracts in the plateau because the government is buying them all. So much for private land ownership in
America. Such land acquisitions are commonly known as land grabs. Why is our government doing this? Conservation can only go so far and eventually there will be no land left for the populace to make a living on.


They did state that the USFWS has rarely used condemnation, but it has been used in the past (they said it happened in the 80's). This was and is a big concern for the residents in Keith Springs. The USFWS folks kept reassuring them that this would not likely happen.

PYoungbaer wrote: When the folks at the public hearing said the caves would be closed to recreational caving due to WNS, it sounded like this was imminent. However, reading the document makes it sound like it may be quite a while until the refuge properties are accumulated and any management plan put into effect.

For those of you who were there, was any timetable discussed?


They did say it could take years to acquire the 25,000+ acres they are seeking. I took the time to look up land for sale in that area yesterday and currently there is a few thousand acres of different parclels already for sale totaling a few million dollars.
Unearthly Beauty Lies Underground for those who Venture In!
www.flickr.com/undergroundearth
User avatar
UnderGroundEarth
NSS Hall Of Fame Poster
 
Posts: 534
Joined: May 17, 2006 3:39 pm
Location: Jasper, Tennessee
Name: Kelly Smallwood
NSS #: 58745 RL,FE
Primary Grotto Affiliation: Sewanee Mountain Grotto
  

Re: US Fish & Wildlife Paint Rock River Wildlife Refuge

Postby Myrna Attaway » Apr 19, 2013 6:47 pm

Sounds like the best idea is for all of us to send emails. Ive sent mine, have you sent one?
Myrna Attaway
Frequent Poster
 
Posts: 52
Joined: Oct 1, 2005 10:42 am
  

Re: US Fish & Wildlife Paint Rock River Wildlife Refuge

Postby tncaver » Apr 22, 2013 9:48 am

Myrna Attaway wrote:Sounds like the best idea is for all of us to send emails. Ive sent mine, have you sent one?


Yes I did. And I've already received a reply. NONE of my questions were answered. It was basically a generic email that said to
give them a call if I want any questions answered, and it appears the land acquisitions will continue regardless of public comments.
I am in favor of acquisitions IF the public is given "real" access rather than extremely limited access with priority access given only to hunting. Deer and turkey season corresponds to the nicest times of the year in regards to weather and all outdoor recreation. Deer and turkey seasons are also when most public lands are placed off limits to all recreation except hunting. By the time hunting seasons are over it is cold in the Winter or hot and buggy in the Summer. The best Fall and Spring weather is dominated by hunting ONLY. I would like to see that change with new land acquisitions. There are already thousands of acres available for hunting during Fall and Spring, but very little land is available for other recreation during hunting seasons. What are people supposed to do during the nicest months of the year? Everyone does not want to be a hunter.
Here is the reply I received:

Hello Mr. *********: Thank you for your comments. All substantive comments and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's responses to such comments will be published in the Final Land Protection Plan (LPP) and Environmental Assessment (EA), slated to be released later this summer.

If you have any questions regarding the planning process, feel free to give me a call.

Sincerely,

Oliver van den Ende
Natural Resource Planner
Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge
2700 Refuge HQ Road
Decatur, AL 35603
Office: 256-353-7243 Ext 28
Cell: 256-560-5083
Fax: 256-340-9728


On Thu, Apr 11, 2013 at 1:25 PM, jh <Mr. ***********> wrote:

To whom this may concern,
There are many questions regarding the continued acquisition of huge acreages of land by government agencies. 1.One of my primary concerns is, how does the government plan to replace the tax dollars that the former property owners paid? Raising taxes on everyone else is a selfish venue. 2.Does the USFWS plan on closing all the logging roads that have been used by many people for recreational camping and off roading? If you close all roads, you are not benefitting the general public.
3.Again, if you plan on closing all the caves on that land you are not benefitting the public. If there is a cave with a colony of gray bats, then close it but please leave the others open for citizens to enjoy, learn and recreate in. 4.Will the land be closed to recreation during hunting seasons? If so then again only hunters will benefit during the best camping and hiking weather of the entire year. If you plan on doing any of the closures I have mentioned above, I am NOT in favor of buying up that land.
Mr. ************
1127 ************ Road
**************, TN
tncaver
NSS Hall Of Fame Poster
 
Posts: 2623
Joined: May 17, 2007 7:03 pm
  

Re: US Fish & Wildlife Paint Rock River Wildlife Refuge

Postby graveleye » Apr 23, 2013 9:46 am

heck I would call him. Put them on the spot for a real answer.
I find the form letter you received to be passively arrogant and annoying as if they want to make you work for some real answers which they either don't have or don't wish to disclose. Perhaps they just want to make us work for it.
ad astra per aspera

http://www.myspace.com/jamthecontrols

The views expressed in this post are not necessarily those of any organization I am affiliated with.

Become a sustaining member of the SCCI
User avatar
graveleye
Global Moderator
 
Posts: 2934
Joined: Mar 14, 2006 11:12 am
Location: Georgia, USA
Name: Kevin Glenn
NSS #: 57238RL
  

Re: US Fish & Wildlife Paint Rock River Wildlife Refuge

Postby UnderGroundEarth » Apr 23, 2013 10:32 am

I also received the same generic email response. I did not expect that sending an email would generate a personal response. They did however address specific concerns at both public meetings. Unfortunately, they do not even have enough staff to manage the preserves they already have so I doubt they have the time to respond individually to the hundreds of emails they are receiving. In the first go around they received over 200 emails. The response is probably much greater this go around.

I agree with Kevin, perhaps you should call them if you want more of a specific answer.

Even if the refuge is approved it could take many years (if ever) to acquire the land. The USFWS didn't ask for this. They were told by higher authorties in our government that money had to be spent in all 50 states per Obama's America's Great Outdoors Initiative - http://www.doi.gov/americasgreatoutdoors/index.cfm.
Unearthly Beauty Lies Underground for those who Venture In!
www.flickr.com/undergroundearth
User avatar
UnderGroundEarth
NSS Hall Of Fame Poster
 
Posts: 534
Joined: May 17, 2006 3:39 pm
Location: Jasper, Tennessee
Name: Kelly Smallwood
NSS #: 58745 RL,FE
Primary Grotto Affiliation: Sewanee Mountain Grotto
  

Re: US Fish & Wildlife Paint Rock River Wildlife Refuge

Postby UnderGroundEarth » Apr 23, 2013 10:55 am

tncaver wrote:On Thu, Apr 11, 2013 at 1:25 PM, jh <Mr. ***********> wrote:

To whom this may concern,
There are many questions regarding the continued acquisition of huge acreages of land by government agencies. 1.One of my primary concerns is, how does the government plan to replace the tax dollars that the former property owners paid? Raising taxes on everyone else is a selfish venue. 2.Does the USFWS plan on closing all the logging roads that have been used by many people for recreational camping and off roading? If you close all roads, you are not benefitting the general public.
3.Again, if you plan on closing all the caves on that land you are not benefitting the public. If there is a cave with a colony of gray bats, then close it but please leave the others open for citizens to enjoy, learn and recreate in. 4.Will the land be closed to recreation during hunting seasons? If so then again only hunters will benefit during the best camping and hiking weather of the entire year. If you plan on doing any of the closures I have mentioned above, I am NOT in favor of buying up that land.
Mr. ************
1127 ************ Road
**************, TN


They did answer all of your questions except #4 at the last public meeting and they are also answered in the Draft Land Protection Plan & Environmental Assessment - http://www.fws.gov/southeast/paintrockr ... 5-2013.pdf. This also may be why you did not receive a personal response back, because the answers are out there - you just have to read their Draft Land Protection Plan & Environmental Assessment.

1) The county will receive money from the govt to make up for the tax loss on the sale of land to the USFWS (see page 108 under Local Tax Revenues for your answer).

2) YES, logging roads and those used for off roading will be closed. There will be no off roading or camping allowed on the public land in this refuge (see table 19 on page 161).

3) Yes, it is the current policy of the USFWS that all caves on govt land are closed for recreational uses. This does not mean they will not allow cavers access for scientific purposes (inventory counts, survey, etc... also see table 19 on page 161).

4) The only activity that I could find in the document that is prohibited during hunting season is horseback riding (page 190)
Unearthly Beauty Lies Underground for those who Venture In!
www.flickr.com/undergroundearth
User avatar
UnderGroundEarth
NSS Hall Of Fame Poster
 
Posts: 534
Joined: May 17, 2006 3:39 pm
Location: Jasper, Tennessee
Name: Kelly Smallwood
NSS #: 58745 RL,FE
Primary Grotto Affiliation: Sewanee Mountain Grotto
  

Re: US Fish & Wildlife Paint Rock River Wildlife Refuge

Postby tncaver » Apr 23, 2013 11:57 am

UnderGroundEarth wrote:
1) The county will receive money from the govt to make up for the tax loss on the sale of land to the USFWS (see page 108 under Local Tax Revenues for your answer).
1 Reply: Tax money comes from tax payers. The FED may pay tax dollars to the state but the tax money still comes from taxpayers ( you and me).

2) YES, logging roads and those used for off roading will be closed. There will be no off roading or camping allowed on the public land in this refuge (see table 19 on page 161).
2 Reply: This is restricting recreation. Once again, the public will be paying for recreation they are not allowed to have.

3) Yes, it is the current policy of the USFWS that all caves on govt land are closed for recreational uses. This does not mean they will not allow cavers access for scientific purposes (inventory counts, survey, etc... also see table 19 on page 161).
3 Reply: Caving only for scientific purposes once again is NOT recreation. Taxpayers will be paying for something they are not getting.

4) The only activity that I could find in the document that is prohibited during hunting season is horseback riding (page 190)
4 Reply: If horseback riding is the only thing restricted during hunting season, all that is left is hiking and photography unless
there are also some navigable waters available, which is doubtful most of the year.


Not much bang for the buck. As a caver, hiker, camper, off road enthusiast and taxpayer, I feel cheated. The land will also have to be paid for by taxpayers. Nothing is free. I wonder how many air traffic controllers could be put back to work with the money that is going to be used to buy that land that the general public will get very little use of? I wonder if UnderGroundEarth will be one of the privileged few who will be caving on the taxpayer's dime?
Last edited by tncaver on Apr 23, 2013 1:27 pm, edited 1 time in total.
tncaver
NSS Hall Of Fame Poster
 
Posts: 2623
Joined: May 17, 2007 7:03 pm
  

Re: US Fish & Wildlife Paint Rock River Wildlife Refuge

Postby UnderGroundEarth » Apr 23, 2013 12:26 pm

tncaver wrote: As a caver, hiker, camper, off road enthusiast and taxpayer, I feel cheated. Don't forget, the land will also have to be paid for. If The Nature Conservancy is involved with purchasing any of the land, I suspect they will be making money off it when they sell it to the government (ie: you and me). Regardless, citizens will be paying the taxes for the purchase as well as for lost revenue each year. Nothing is free. Not much bang for the buck.



The proposed refuge is a part of Obama's America's Great Outdoors 50 State Initiative. The money to fund the AGO comes from the Land and Water Conservation Fund. The Land & Water Fund receives $900 million in royalties for oil and gas produced from federal lands. The main source of funding for this fund does come from fedral offshore oil lease revenues. The Land and Water Conservation Fund (LWCF) was created by Congress in 1965. It is a bipartisan commitment to safeguard natural areas, water resources and our cultural heritage, and to provide recreation opportunities to all Americans. National parks like Rocky Mountain, the Grand Canyon, and the Great Smoky Mountains, as well as national wildlife refuges, national forests, rivers and lakes, community parks, trails, and ball fields in every one of our 50 states were set aside for Americans to enjoy thanks to federal funds from the Land and Water Conservation Fund.

For various reasons, not all recreational activities are available at every state or federal owned parks/land. You can't go caving or off roading in the Smoky Mtns National Park either.
Unearthly Beauty Lies Underground for those who Venture In!
www.flickr.com/undergroundearth
User avatar
UnderGroundEarth
NSS Hall Of Fame Poster
 
Posts: 534
Joined: May 17, 2006 3:39 pm
Location: Jasper, Tennessee
Name: Kelly Smallwood
NSS #: 58745 RL,FE
Primary Grotto Affiliation: Sewanee Mountain Grotto
  

Next

Return to Conservation Forum

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users

cron